Glossary (A - Z)
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A component of a Chinese character under which it is catalogued in a dictionary. The list of Chinese radicals is a rough equivalent of a Chinese "alphabet". All Chinese characters can be classified into radicals.
Randomized Control Trial (RCT)
A study in which people are allocated at random (by chance alone) to receive one of several interventions. One of those interventions is the standard for comparison, or control, giving researchers a reference point for the efficacy of the specific intervention being evaluated. The control can be a placebo or no intervention at all. RCTs seek to measure and compare the outcomes after the participants receive the interventions.
Rapid automatized naming (RAN)
A measure of cognitive processing, measured by the rate of naming colours, digits, objects or letters. This measure is a predictor for fluency of reading.
The ability to understand written text by means of decoding words to determine meaning.
The ability to decode text accurately and quickly.
An individualís ability to understand written or spoken language.
Receptive language disorder
A difficulty in an individualís ability to understand written or spoken language.
The stock of words that an individual can understand.
A linguistic structure used in some languages to establish a link between two noun phrases. English does not have a reciprocal voice pattern and instead uses the term "each other" to indicate reciprocity between noun phrases.
Regular letter-sound correspondence
When the letter or symbol is always pronounced in the same way (English does not have a regular letter-sound correspondence).
A clause used to provide additional information about something without starting another sentence. The text becomes more fluent and less redundant when sentences are combined with a relative clause (e.g., John is in the same class with the girl whose
mother is a local celebrity).
The consistency of a set of measurements or of a measuring instrument. A way that researchers ensure the methodology used in a study was done properly, which gives confidence about the conclusions drawn from the study.
A condition where the sound produced during speech vibrates abnormally in the cavities of the vocal tract.
In a statistical study, subjects used to obtain results.
Used to recall information from memory.
A study that looks back in time to examine why a specific outcome occurred.
Collection of reflected sounds from the surfaces in an enclosure like a classroom. It is created when a sound is produced in an enclosed space, setting off a large number of echoes, which then slowly disappear as the sound is absorbed by the walls and air.
Reversible passives with animate agent and patient
A passive construction in which the subject can be exchanged with the agent in the by-phrase and still leave a correct logical sentence, albeit with the opposite meaning (e.g., the boy was seen by the girl).
Right inferior frontal orbital
The lower region of the right frontal lobe, above the orbit of the eye; specializes in higher cognitive function.
Right inferior temporal
The lower region of the right temporal lobe; involved in auditory processing.
In linguistics, a part of the syllable that usually starts from the first vowel and continues to the end of the syllable.
Dependability of a system, product, or process to continue operating well even though conditions are constantly changing.
A morpheme, often of Latin origin, that may or may not be able to stand alone; it is used to form a family of words with related meanings (e.g., "view" is a root word for preview, review and viewable).
The process of learning or memorizing without fully understanding a subject. The major practice involved in rote learning is repetition.
Round robin reading
A reading strategy in which students are asked to read aloud part of a shared classroom text; while one student is reading aloud, the others are expected to follow along, reading silently.