Glossary (A - Z)
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Involves students reading aloud with a partner, taking turns to provide word identification help and feedback. Pairing may be determined by reading abilities (e.g., students with stronger reading skills may be paired with those who have weaker reading skills).
Area within the parietal lobe in the brain.
The lobe in the brain responsible for determining spatial sense and navigation. Also responsible for visual perception.
The region in the brain where the parietal and temporal lobes meet.
A word or a part of a word which has a grammatical purpose but often has little or no meaning (e.g., I got up early this morning; the adverb 'up' is a particle).
A verb tense in which the subject undergoes the action (i.e., The dog was walked by myself). By contrast, in the active voice, the agent undergoes the action (i.e., I walked the dog).
A verb tense referring to an activity which has previously occurred (e.g., 'watched', 'danced', 'ate', 'slept').
The principles and methods of instruction.
The ability to be perceived; see perception.
The process of acquiring, interpreting and organizing all forms of sensory information.
An approximation or judgement of what is perceived.
Grammatical markings used to denote the perfect tense, referring to a description of actions that have been or will be completed in relation to a previously specified event (e.g., in 'I have
this movie several times' the italicized items are perfective markings).
An expected pattern of performance as determined by a larger group of studied subjects.
In genetics, the observable, measurable characteristic related to individual variations in DNA.
The smallest unit of sound within our language system. A single phoneme has the ability to change the meanings of a word (e.g., changing the first phoneme "bit" from /b/ to /s/ makes it "sit."). English has approximately 41-44 phonemes. Words can be composed of a single phoneme (e.g., "a" or "oh") or multiple phonemes.
The process of acquiring phonemes within a language system.
The ability to hear all the different sounds of speech.
Correspondence between the set of sounds (phonemes) and the set of elements of writing (graphemes) in a language.
Involves the ability to identify and manipulate the individual sounds in words (e.g., cat = k-a-t).
A specific aspect of a phoneme.
Phonetic coding system
A cognitive procedure used to identify groupings of sounds (phonemes) that, when arranged in a particular order, are spoken in a particular way. Phonetic coding systems are used to improve word decoding ability.
The individual speech sounds in words (e.g., ‘cat’ is made up of the sounds k-a-t).
The collections of phonemes that exist in a given language.
The use of mirrors, imitative models, verbal instructions, and tools such as tongue depressors and straws to help children achieve correct placement of the articulators for production of speech sounds.
The study and classification of speech sounds, including their production, transmission and perception.
A form of instruction that teaches students to understand and use the alphabetic principle. Students learn the relationships between phonemes (the sounds in spoken language) and graphemes (the letters that represent those sounds in written language) and use this information to read and decode words.
Helps children identify the relationship between sounds and letters and to use this information to support their spelling and reading.
Of or relating to phonology; see phonology.
The process by which speech sound forms of a language are acquired.
Provides a systematic way of teaching the sounds of the language quickly and efficiently. It helps address the child's phonological system by focusing on patterns of pronunciation errors (e.g., the SLP could begin by teaching the child to put the ending sounds on words, working on words like 'beet', 'peep', and 'puff' all at the same time).
An "umbrella" term that is used to refer to the understanding or insight into different sound structures in a language. This term encompasses awareness of individual sounds in words (phonemic awareness) as well as of individual words in sentences, syllables and onset-rime segments.
The ability to produce, differentiate and manipulate the sounds of a language separate from meaning.
The process by which a word's graphical representation is converted into spoken sounds; often referred to as "sounding out" a word.
Errors in phonological processes.
The inability to pronounce, produce or accurately combine sounds.
The specific aspect of a language which exists beyond the specific sounds (i.e., beyond their phonemic composition). For example, syllable, intonation, stress.
The properties of individual linguistic units, such as place of production, manner of production, and existence of voicing properties in the sound's production.
The inability or diminished ability to pronounce, produce or accurately combine sounds.
The acquisition of the accurate pronunciation, production or combination of sounds.
Naturally recurring combinations of sounds in speech.
An individual’s ability to identify and manipulate the sounds in a language.
Sensitivity to and awareness of sounds in words.
Phonological short-term memory phenotype
The observable characteristics of DNA as they relate to phonological short-term memory, meaning the child's ability to remember speech sounds in the sequence they were heard over a short period of time.
Associated with the appropriate development of phonological knowledge and learning; for example, substitution, rhyming or blending of sounds.
The constituent sounds of words including syllables, onset-rimes, and phonemes within a language.
The combination of sounds and their appropriate production, pronunciation and articulation.
Phonological working memory
The sound or verbal/visual language memory system used for holding and manipulating information while various mental tasks are carried out.
The study of the sound system used in language and its rules for combining sounds and patterns of stress and intonation.
Rules in a particular language governing what sounds can be combined in a word.
Factors pertaining to the biological function of living organisms.
The most commonly used method of depicting Standard Mandarin in its phonetic forms.
The value of a digit as determined by its position in a number (e.g., in the number "11" the one is worth either 10 or 1, depending on the position).
An inactive substance or preparation used as a control in an experiment or test to determine the effectiveness of a medicinal drug.
Refers to the ability of the brain to adapt to new conditions; for example, if one area of the brain becomes nonfunctional, another area may take over its responsibilities to some extent.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Technology involved in the creation of three dimensional images of the selected body part. Both clinical and research uses, often in the fields of neurology and oncology.
Verb structures that imply ownership over another object (e.g., 'my - mine', 'your - yours', etc).
Posterior middle temporal gyrus
A ridge in the temporal lobe; exact function unknown, but suspected to be involved in determining word meaning while reading.
Objects that are considered to have "power" are grammatically animate (e.g., Ojibway).
The rules or conventions governing the use of oral language within a social or situational context.
A structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. It is believed that it contains a sensory-based map of one's own body.
One of the two main parts of a sentence; it provides information about the subject and must contain a verb (e.g., Judy ran the New York marathon
– the part of the sentence in italics is a predicate).
The extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts future performance.
A region located at the front of the brain that has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, personality expression, decision making and moderating correct social behavior.
A ridge in the frontal lobe which contains the primary motor cortex.
Early communication interactions between young infants (1 to 8 months of age) and caregivers with no intent. The child does not expect a specific outcome to occur as a result of the communication interaction (e.g., vocalizations).
The time period before a child speaks their first meaningful word.
In grammar, of adjectives; placed before a noun (e.g., 'blue' is an attributive adjective in 'a blue sweater').
A linking word in a sentence (e.g., 'on', 'beside', 'during').
A string of words comprised of a preposition describing a spatial or temporal relationship, and its associated object. The phrase "under the table" is a prepositional phrase.
A consonant that is produced with a lot of obstruction of airflow in the mouth (e.g., ‘p’ and ‘b’).
Early communication behaviours (e.g., body movements) used by infants before formal symbols (e.g., speech, sign language). These behaviours can be used in preintentional communication (e.g., general body movements) and intentional communication (e.g., pointing).
Primary and secondary motor area
A region of the brain responsible for generating the neural impulses controlling execution of movement.
A precursor to early literacy referring to an understanding that individual letter combinations carry meaning as words, that lines on the page are linked to words that are spoken while reading, as well as a familiarity with reading conventions such as identifying the front of a book.
Strategic knowledge or knowledge of how
to do something (e.g., a student applies a rule of grammar in communication).
A non-accentuated particle that makes a phonetic whole with the word that comes after it (e.g., the English article 'the,' when unstressed and with a reduced vowel, is a proclitic, as in the following: 'the
The course and outcome of a disorder.
Factors that may indicate the presence, or likelihood, of a disorder.
A grammatical form used to act as a substitute for a noun, such as 'I', 'you', 'he', 'she', 'its', 'we', and 'they'.
A phrase which can be true or false, but makes some statement about the world.
The rhythm, stress and intonation of speech. Prosodic patterns can be specific to a language.
Non-words which when pronounced, sounds like a real, familiar word. For example, the pseudohomophone BRANE sounds like the real word BRAIN.
Unit of speech or text that appears like it could be an actual word in a certain language while in fact it is not.
An area of study which draws from linguistics and psychology and focuses upon the comprehension and production of language.
Models used in educational and psychological testing to measure knowledge, abilities, attitudes and personality – usually based on average or typical performance.
The quality of a test, based on its consistency, reliability and validity.
The psychological development of an individual in relation to his or her social environment.
The psychological status of an individual in relation to his or her social environment.
Occurs when positive results are more likely to be published than negative or inconclusive results.