Glossary (A - Z)
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A story about fictional or real events, which follows a basic standard format. Narratives include a plot, setting, characters, structure (introduction, complication, resolution) and theme.
The ability to tell a story about fictional or real events while following a basic standard format.
A specific structure of language used to talk about fictional or real events.
Narrative discourse structure
Language structure used to describe a series of fictional or non-fictional events.
The structural framework underlying a story (e.g., introduction, middle, end).
Sounds that are created when the oral cavity is closed, causing the air flow to move through the nose (e.g., /m, n/).
The process of changing the meaning of a word or phrase to its negative counterpart (e.g., 'I am tall' vs. 'I am not tall').
Of or originating from the brain or brain structures.
The connection of neurons within the brain; the pathway used to achieve a specific goal.
Composed of a group of neurons (the cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information by electrochemical signalling) that work together to perform a specific function within the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
A specific pattern of brain function or dysfunction as indicative of a particular disorder.
A set of specialized cells that serve a specific function (e.g., visual system).
Of or pertaining to neuroanatomy, the study of the anatomical organization of the brain.
Of or pertaining to neurobiology, the biological study of nerve and brain function.
A term used to describe cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain.
Of or pertaining to the development of neurological pathways in the brain.
A disruption or delay in early brain development.
Pertaining to brain function.
Neurogenic communication disorders
Problems with communication due an impaired nervous system, affecting hearing, speech, or language ability.
Includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the brain. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine and neuroscience/psychology.
Studies concerned with producing images of the brain by noninvasive techniques and which map the structure or function of the brain by using technologies such as CT, CAT, PET, SPECT, MRI, and FMRI.
Having to do with the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Having to do with the connections within the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Any disorder that primarily relates to the central nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord.
A functional entity of interconnected neurons that influence each other.
An excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signalling. Neurons are the core components of the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves.
Of or pertaining to neuropsychology, the basic scientific discipline that studies the structure and function of the brain related to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors.
The study of the brain and central nervous system, particularly their physical and biological attributes and their control of movement, behavior, and learning.
A sentence with either a subject and a complement, but no linking verb (e.g., 'Fascinating, this topic.') or only a subject and a complement (e.g., 'Mr. Smith is a teacher.').
Non-symbolic arithmetic/numerical skills
The ability to perform numerical operations without apparent use of number words or symbols.
Skills that do not rely on use of verbal or written representation.
Made up words (e.g., slintif).
A test that ranks an individual within a group of predetermined individuals who have also been measured for the same trait.
The distribution of a large set of test scores where most scores will be in the average range.
Refers to the average or normal values across various levels of performance within a population.
Relating to a structural model which describes a socially accepted ideal; used to describe an idealized goal to be achieved.
Skills in which an individual is compared to an average score that is typically expected for their age category.
A word used to name a person, place, thing or abstract idea (e.g., singer, library, ball, comfort).
The four types of molecules that make up the specific structure of a given gene (DNA or RNA).
Number line estimation
An educated guess of the placement of a number on an image with a horizontal line, on which each point represents a real number.
The understanding of number and operations, the ability to use this understanding to learn and develop strategies for handling numbers and operations, and the ability to use numbers as a way of communicating and dealing with information.
A collection of symbols used to communicate a numerical value.
A term introduced by UK educational policymakers in the 1950s; it includes number, arithmetic, procedures, problem solving, and measurement.
A subdiscipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics.
Mathematical processes involving growth or depletion of the total value (i.e., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division).