Glossary (A - Z)
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Children's basic knowledge of number facts (e.g., 4 x 3 = ?), which should be stored in long-term memory and be automatically accessed when a problem is presented (Bisanz & LeFevre, 1990).
Consists of "figures of speech" such as idioms, similes, and metaphors, which are all a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.
Movements that require a high degree of control and precision. These may include drawing shapes, writing, cutting with a scissors, using eating utensils.
First person singular
A grammatical term that is illustrated by using the pronoun "I".
The ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression.
A condition where the speaker produces speech that does not flow as smoothly as normal speech.
A form of structured, classroom-based education that follows a curriculum and directs learning.
A type of informal assessment used to adjust instruction and materials to the studentís learning. It includes teacher feedback as part of the process and is used to promote student attainment.
Consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators such as the teeth or lips close together (e.g., blowing sounds /f, s/).
Functional and structural neuroimaging methods
Noninvasive tools used to observe function and structures in the brain.
Functional brain imaging
A noninvasive tool used to observe functioning in the brain.
The amount of work a phoneme does to distinguish one utterance (usually a word) from another.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
A type of specialized MRI scan. A noninvasive tool used to observe functioning in the brain or other organs by determining which part of the brain and spinal cord is active during a given task by tracking blood oxygen levels in the brain.
The field that concerns itself with linking function with brain structure.
A skill that is basic, necessary or important.
A fold or "bump" in the brain involved in processing of colour information, face and body recognition, and word representation.